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All posts by Devendra Swarup

The Making of Our Constitution-2

In the second part of this article, Devendra Swaroop takes us on a journey to the origins of our constitution. What were its original aims and how did it come to be introduced in India?

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The Making of Our Constitution-1

This article from Devendra Swaroop takes us on a journey to the origins of our constitution. What were its original aims and how did it come to be introduced in India?

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Caste in the Census: Necessity or Invention?

Why did the British create the census and why did they enumerate castes in the census? Did they really want to gather sociological data or did they have other intentions? Read this brilliant piece to find out.

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“Divide and Rule”. The British Colonial Policy on Caste

Did the British succeed in dividing Indian society in their bid to abolish caste? Why did they resort to the policy of "divide and rule"? Read this brilliant article to find out.

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Brahmins are the root cause of all problems !

British officials conveniently blamed the Brahmin soldiers for instigating the mutiny of 1857. But in doing so, they were faced with an even bigger predicament.

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Is the Caste System the main reason for the religious conversion of lower castes? : Missionary debates of the Nineteenth Century

It is evident from the missionaries debates that the caste system is neither the main reason for the religious conversion of lower castes, nor is it responsible for their backwardness. Today, if the support of reservation is needed to uplift the lower castes who converted to Christianity hundreds of years ago, then the Church must accept its failure and free these people from the shackles of Christianity.

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Caste System and Brahmins: The biggest hurdles for Missionaries to convert Hindus

The vast amount of missionary literature and correspondence, prior to 1857, mentions two hurdles in the path of religious conversion. •The first hurdle was the stringent regulations of the caste system due to which the converted person was ostracized by the caste and community to which he belonged. •The second hurdle was the immense respect and reverence in the society for Brahmins. The missionaries found themselves unable to challenge the moral and intellectual superiority of the Brahmins.

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ईसाई मिशनरी और जाति-संस्था

सन् १८५७ के पूर्व का विशाल मिशनरी साहित्य एवं पत्र-व्यवहार धर्मांतरण के मार्ग में दो ही बाधाओं का उल्लेख करता है। एक, जाति-संस्था के कड़े बंधन, जिसके कारण धर्मांतरित व्यक्ति जाति से बहिष्कृत कर दिया जाता था। दूसरा कारण था पूरे समाज में ब्राह्मणों के प्रति अपार श्रद्धा का भाव। ब्राह्मणों की नैतिक-बौद्धिक श्रेष्ठता को चुनौती दे पाने में मिशनरी स्वयं को असमर्थ पा रहे थे। अपने इस अनुभव के कारण ईसाई मिशनरियों ने जाति-संस्था को ब्राह्मणवाद की रचना मानकर उसे तोड़ना ही ईसाई धर्म का मुख्य लक्ष्य घोषित कर दिया।

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The Dream of a Casteless Society

Why is caste which we wanted to eradicate and completely uproot now becoming stronger and more prominent despite our persistent efforts to the contrary? Have we made the mistake of trying to eradicate the caste system because of our inability to comprehend the caste system? After all, why did we assume that caste is a social problem and that it is a hurdle in the path of national progress and unity? From where did we get this perspective? Is this, like our other major beliefs and principles, a part of the legacy of British socialism that we have inherited?

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जाति-विहीन समाज का सपना

क्या अपने लंबे अनुभव के प्रकाश में यह आवश्यक नहीं कि हम नए सिरे से जाति-संस्था को समझने का प्रयास करें? क्यों यह जाति-संस्था समूचे विश्व में केवल भारत और विशेषकर हिंदू समाज का ही वैशिष्ट्य है? भारतीय मिट्टी और इतिहास में इसकी जड़ें कहाँ हैं? यदि इसके पीछे कोई जीवन-दर्शन है तो वह क्या है? यदि यह मानव-विरोधी, काल-बाह्य और अप्रासंगिक संस्था है तो यह अपने आप मर क्यों नहीं जाती? क्या है जो इसे जिंदा रखे हुए है? पर इन सब प्रश्नों में प्रवेश करने के पूर्व आवश्यक है कि हम यह जानें कि यूरोपीय यात्रियों, मिशनरियों, ब्रिटिश शासकों इत्यादि ने जाति-संस्था को समय-समय पर किस रूप में देखा और उसके प्रति क्या रणनीति अपनाई?

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